Braving bitter chilly and the specter of arrest, Russians rally in cities throughout the nation.

MOSCOW — Hundreds of protesters throughout Russia took to the streets on Sunday for a second consecutive week to rally for the jailed opposition chief Aleksei A. Navalny, they usually have been met by one of the imposing exhibits of police drive seen within the nation’s current historical past.

In Moscow, the police ordered seven subway stations across the Kremlin to shut on Sunday and mentioned pedestrian entry could be restricted within the heart of the town — an unheard-of transfer in recent times disrupting the core of a metropolis of 13 million folks.

Cops have been asking cafe homeowners to show off their Wi-Fi, the Interfax information company reported, an indication that the federal government was making ready to restrict cellular web entry later within the day.

As they did one week in the past, the protests began in Russia’s Far East and swept throughout the huge nation of 11 time zones, with demonstrations scheduled for midday in cities and small cities alike.

There have been early indications that the gatherings in some cities gave the impression to be smaller than these of final weekend, however crowds within the hundreds nonetheless turned out in some far-flung locations like Yekaterinburg. The legislation enforcement presence gave the impression to be tremendously stepped up in all places.

Lower than an hour earlier than the protests in Moscow and St. Petersburg have been scheduled to begin, the protest organizers introduced new beginning factors to attempt to keep away from police cordons in these cities.

Within the Siberian metropolis of Novosibirsk, hundreds of individuals packed the sidewalks of central streets. Within the Pacific port metropolis of Vladivostok, demonstrators have been pressured onto the ice of a frozen bay, with riot cops in pursuit. And in Chelyabinsk within the Ural Mountains area, there was footage of riot cops clubbing protesters with batons.

The defiant turnout in so many elements of the nation confirmed that the gathered anger with President Vladimir V. Putin stays a potent drive, even with Mr. Navalny and most of his predominant allies throughout the nation now in jail.

Mr. Navalny, a 44-year-old anticorruption activist, fell right into a coma after a poisoning in Siberia final summer season, recovered in Germany, flew dwelling to Moscow two weeks in the past and was arrested at passport management.

At a courtroom listening to on Tuesday, he might obtain a number of years in jail over parole violations stemming from a 2014 embezzlement case that Europe’s high human rights courtroom referred to as politically motivated.

Mr. Navalny’s backers say solely the stress of road protests can drive the Kremlin to launch the opposition chief, together with the handfuls of his associates and supporters throughout the nation who’re being threatened with prosecution. The Russian authorities has referred to as the protests in his assist unlawful, threatening anybody who participates with jail time.

In Moscow, a number of thousand protesters scattered throughout the northern a part of the town heart performed an hourslong sport of cat and mouse with enormous numbers of riot cops in physique armor and camouflage.

Protest organizers had referred to as for folks to collect in Lubyanka Sq., in entrance of the headquarters of the home intelligence company, however the space was totally sealed off for pedestrians by the police.

Utilizing Twitter and Telegram, supporters of the jailed opposition chief Aleksei A. Navalny directed protesters farther north towards the town’s predominant prepare hub, sending columns of police vans dashing in that route.

As Mr. Navalny’s staff introduced new locations for the protesters, the Moscow metropolis authorities responded by closing down subway stations on their approach and blocking pedestrian site visitors.

“We’re many!” Mr. Navalny’s staff posted on Twitter because it directed protesters. “Not a single riot police automotive can knock this column off its path.”

Protesters checked their telephones, trying as much as regulate the riot police. On their approach, they chanted “Freedom!”, “Putin is a thief!” and “Russia will likely be free!”

The police additionally marched in columns via slushy snow on sidewalks. They detained folks within the crowd seemingly at random, dragging them into ready detention wagons. At the very least 142 folks have been arrested in Moscow, the OVD-Data activist group reported, amongst greater than 1,000 detained nationwide.

“I don’t perceive what they’re afraid of,” a protester named Anastasia Kuzmina, a 25-year-old account supervisor at an promoting company, mentioned of the police. Referring to the height yr of Stalin’s mass repression, she added: “It’s like we’re slipping into 1937.”

Within the frozen port metropolis of Vladivostok, a seven-day prepare experience from Moscow on the Sea of Japan, the police moved swiftly to attempt to block protesters from converging within the metropolis heart.

They erected barricades and closed underpasses. So the protesters took to the ice masking Amur Bay.

Clasping fingers, they fashioned chains as they chanted “Putin is a thief!” and “Russia will likely be free!”

Their actions on the ice, captured on social media, seemed nearly like a dance.

Riot cops, initially hesitant to observe on the frozen waters, determined to provide chase. Nevertheless it performed out in seeming gradual movement, with all sides transferring gingerly on the snow-covered expanse of ice beneath a grey late-afternoon sky.

It was simply one among many outstanding scenes that performed out on Sunday in japanese Russia, the place large-scale protests are uncommon.

Though the gang in Vladivostok was considerably smaller than one week in the past, in accordance with a neighborhood journalist, the police have been taking no probabilities.

At the very least 96 folks have been detained, in accordance with OVD-Data, an activist group that tracks arrests at protests.

“Folks have been dissatisfied that there weren’t as many individuals and that there wasn’t as a lot exercise as final Saturday,” the native journalist, Tatyana Menshikova, mentioned by telephone.

Within the Siberian metropolis of Irkutsk, the place temperatures approached minus 20 Fahrenheit (minus 29 Celsius), the turnout was additionally considerably smaller than the hundreds who protested final weekend — and the police presence much more imposing.

Aleksei Zhemchuzhnikov, a civic activist, mentioned chains of riot cops with full physique armor and shields have been deployed for the primary time, cordoning off sections of the town heart. Cellular web entry was lower off, he mentioned.

“For Irkutsk, this was a primary,” Mr. Zhemchuzhnikov mentioned of the police response. “They have been scared.”

Even earlier than Russians gathered for a second week of protests, the Kremlin made it clear that any demonstrations could be met with an excellent better present of drive.

The large scale of the nationwide operation of current weeks to defuse the anger that the arrest of Aleksei A. Navalny sparked has revealed the deep anxiousness within the Kremlin.

Photos and video footage from throughout the nation confirmed strains of tons of of riot cops deployed to forestall Mr. Navalny’s supporters from having the ability to collect in a single place. Within the Siberian metropolis of Krasnoyarsk, the authorities dumped snow onto two central squares to make them impassable for pedestrians.

On the protests final weekend, which passed off in additional than 100 cities, some 4,000 folks have been arrested, in accordance with an activist group. Many have been later launched, however some acquired jail phrases for violating public-gathering legal guidelines and others have been threatened with felony prosecution for alleged violence.

When the police got here to detain Anastasia Vasilyeva, a doctor who leads a pro-Navalny group referred to as the Alliance of Docs, she used the piano as her technique of defiance.

A few of Mr. Navalny’s shut allies have additionally been detained in current days, together with his brother, Oleg Navalny, and Maria Alyokhina, of the punk band Pussy Riot. They have been each positioned beneath home arrest.

Among the many chants at Sunday’s protests, footage circulating on social media confirmed, was: “Aqua disco!”

The mantra confirmed how deeply an investigative report that Aleksei A. Navalny’s team released shortly after his arrest, about what they describe as President Vladimir V. Putin’s secret palace on the Black Sea, has penetrated the nationwide consciousness.

The 113-minute-long report, with greater than 104 million views on YouTube, reveals the small print of a compound Mr. Navalny says was constructed for Mr. Putin at a price of greater than $1 billion, full with an underground hockey rink, a hookah lounge with a pole-dancing stage, and a fountain space referred to as an “aqua disco.”

The report gained a lot traction that the Kremlin, past merely denying it, in current days launched a counteroffensive to assert that Mr. Putin had nothing to do with the palace. On Saturday, Russia’s state tv channels aired an interview with a billionaire buddy of Mr. Putin, Arkady Rotenberg, during which the enterprise magnate claimed that the property truly belonged to him.

“We need to construct an house lodge there,” Mr. Rotenberg mentioned. “It’s an exquisite place — an incredible discover.”

Navalny’s return to Russia has remodeled the political panorama.

The opposition chief Aleksei A. Navalny’s return to Russia on Jan. 17 has shifted the political panorama going through the Kremlin — each at dwelling and overseas.

Contained in the nation, Russians sad with their president instantly have a transparent chief round whom to rally.

Opposition to President Vladimir V. Putin has lengthy are available in many hues — from Stalinists who dream of resurrecting the deliberate financial system, to nationalists who need to limit migration and annex extra of Ukraine, to city liberals who lengthy for democracy and nearer ties with the West. Hardly ever have these disparate teams come collectively as they have in the last week round Mr. Navalny — as a result of the second has arrived, increasingly more Russians say, after they can not abide passive acceptance of Mr. Putin.

Internationally, Mr. Putin faces new stress on account of the crackdown on Mr. Navalny and his supporters simply as President Biden takes workplace.

On Friday, the chief director of Mr. Navalny’s Anti-Corruption Basis, Vladimir Ashurkov, despatched a letter to Mr. Biden urging the White Home to reply to Mr. Navalny’s detention by imposing sanctions towards 35 Russian officers, state media figures and enterprise tycoons. Mr. Ashurkov mentioned he had put collectively the record with Mr. Navalny earlier than the opposition chief left Germany for Moscow.

“The West should sanction the choice makers who’ve made it nationwide coverage to rig elections, steal from the finances, and poison,” Mr. Ashurkov mentioned within the letter. “It should additionally sanction the individuals who maintain their cash. Something much less will fail to make the regime change its habits.”

KALININGRAD — Aleksandr Dobralsky took to the streets to protest the arrest of Russia’s most outstanding opposition chief earlier this month. However he had different grievances as properly.

“It’s like any person stepped in your toe and mentioned, ‘Simply be affected person with this for a short while,’” Mr. Dobralsky, a lawyer, mentioned of the nation’s financial woes. “How are you going to simply await it to be over?”

Opinion polls have for a number of years now been monitoring a pivot within the nationwide temper, away from what was referred to as the “Crimea consensus” of vast assist for President Vladimir V. Putin for annexing the Ukrainian peninsula and towards disappointment over slumping wages and pensions.

In Russia, the competitors between the rally-around-the-flag impact of Mr. Putin’s assertive international coverage and anger over the sagging financial system is also known as the battle between the tv and the fridge: Do Russians take note of the patriotic information on TV or discover their empty fridges?

“Rallying across the flag is not an antidote towards protest,” Ekaterina Schulmann, an affiliate fellow within the Russia and Eurasia program on the British analysis institute Chatham Home, mentioned in a phone interview.

Ms. Schulmann cited focus-group research indicating that Russians proven financial statistics about declining wages or rising inflation have been extra prone to subsequently categorical assist for a cautious international coverage than Russians not proven the financial information first.

Quite a lot of elements eroded the Crimea consensus.

The yr Mr. Putin annexed Crimea, 2014, his scores at dwelling soared whilst European nations, the US and others responded with sanctions that threatened the financial system.

The confrontational international coverage was initially wildly well-liked. The financial ache took years to work its approach into politics.

However monetary stagnation introduced on by sanctions, a lower in international funding amid tensions with the West and low oil costs have pressured the Kremlin to institute unpopular insurance policies, together with elevating the retirement age to shore up authorities pension funds.

Russians’ common take-home wages adjusted for inflation have been in decline for the reason that Ukraine disaster. They’re now 10 percent lower than they have been seven years in the past.

It’s taking a toll in public opinion.

“In case you don’t have already got a spot within the system you don’t stand an opportunity” of discovering work, Mr. Dobralsky mentioned.

In his hometown, Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania, state propaganda warning of international hazard was at all times a tricky promote.

“They are saying, ‘The Individuals are constructing a army base in Poland,’” Dmitry Feldman, a graphic designer working in Kaliningrad, mentioned of the tv information. “However we all know the Poles. You ask an peculiar dude in Poland ‘Do you need to conquer Siberia?’ they usually don’t know what you’re speaking about.”