WASHINGTON — President Biden will signal a sweeping government order on Friday aimed toward spurring competitors throughout the economic system, encouraging federal companies to take a variety of actions, together with extra carefully scrutinizing the tech business, cracking down on excessive charges charged by sea shippers and permitting listening to aids to be offered over-the-counter.

The order displays the administration’s rising embrace of warnings by some economists that declining competitors is hobbling the economic system’s vitality, elevating costs and decreasing selections for shoppers in key areas, whereas dampening pay and restricting workers’ freedom to change jobs.

However Mr. Biden might discover challenges in addressing that competitors decline throughout numerous sectors of the economic system — together with Silicon Valley, Wall Road, chain eating places and huge hospital networks — solely by way of government motion. Specialists warn that in lots of areas, the president might want to work with Congress to vary federal legal guidelines if he hopes to have extra success than former President Donald J. Trump, who additionally issued competition-focused government orders and noticed restricted outcomes from them.

In interviews this week, senior administration officers acknowledged the restrictions of government authority, however stated the order selected actions, like directing federal regulators to take steps to spice up competitors in a number of areas, that had the perfect probability of success in driving change throughout the economic system.

One a part of the order will inform the federal companies that approve mergers that they need to replace their steering for vetting offers to raised seize Silicon Valley’s enterprise fashions. One other asks the Federal Communications Fee to reinstate web neutrality guidelines for broadband suppliers. One more asks the Federal Commerce Fee to cease producers from blocking farmers from repairing their tractors on their very own.

Different components will goal well being care at a number of ranges. The order will help states and tribal governments in importing lower-cost prescribed drugs from Canada, push for laws issued this yr to permit listening to aides to be offered over-the-counter and ask the F.T.C. and the Justice Division to extra stringently scrutinize hospital mergers to make sure sufferers are usually not harmed by them.

The order will even encourage the F.T.C. to ban or restrict noncompete agreements, which employers have more and more used lately to attempt to inhibit their employees’ means to stop for a greater job. It encourages the fee to additionally ban “pointless” occupational licensing restrictions, which might prohibit employees’ means to seek out new work, particularly throughout state strains. And it encourages each the fee and the Justice Division to additional prohibit the power of employers to share info on employee pay in ways in which would possibly quantity to collusion.

Extra broadly, the chief order encourages antitrust regulators to think about the ways in which mergers would possibly contribute to monopsonies, or industries by which employees have few selections of the place to work and subsequently lack leverage to barter larger wages or higher advantages.

It should create a White Home Competitors Council, led by Brian Deese, the director of the Nationwide Financial Council, which can “coordinate the federal authorities’s response to the rising energy of enormous firms within the economic system,” administration officers stated in a information launch.

Some White Home officers hope the order will hark again to the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who highlighted the rise of massive enterprise and put in authorities officers against focus, stated folks conversant in the matter.

The order is a victory for the rising group of lawmakers, teachers and rival corporations who say authorities regulators didn’t verify the expansion of company America for many years, as a substitute aligning themselves with a conservative view of the legislation that set a excessive normal for when the federal government ought to block mergers or break up monopolies.

They are saying that policymakers must aggressively implement antitrust legal guidelines and probably rewrite them fully. With out drastic motion, they argue, shoppers can have much less alternative, suppliers of larger corporations will get squeezed and large firms will solely develop bigger.

Mr. Biden has already put some vocal critics of company energy in management positions. Within the White Home, he appointed Tim Wu, a Columbia College legislation professor and outspoken proponent of breaking apart corporations like Fb, as a particular adviser on competitors. He named Lina Khan as chair of the Federal Commerce Fee. Ms. Khan labored on a Home antitrust investigation into Amazon, Apple, Fb and Google and earlier in her profession wrote critically about focus in different industries, like sweet manufacturing and agriculture.

However Mr. Biden’s administration is restricted in its attain. The Federal Commerce Fee and the Federal Communications Fee are impartial companies that implement current antitrust and communications legal guidelines. He has additionally not but nominated somebody to steer the Division of Justice’s antitrust division, a key place in figuring out the administration’s place on competitors points.

Home lawmakers have superior a handful of proposals to strengthen the companies’ arms on the subject of Large Tech, however these payments are anticipated to face fierce resistance. Most of the measures within the government order don’t essentially want an act of Congress to broaden the companies’ skills. In lots of circumstances, regulators have held again on implementing current legal guidelines and creating new guidelines, stated folks conversant in the White Home’s considering.

One of many targets of the chief order are mergers the place huge tech corporations purchase small corporations that would change into fierce opponents, snuffing out a rival earlier than it will get off the bottom. The directives encourage the companies to revisit the rules they use to evaluate proposed offers, together with when an organization is shopping for a younger competitor or a significant cache of knowledge that would assist it dominate.

The order will even ask the F.C.C. to undertake new restrictions on the practices of broadband web suppliers like Comcast, AT&T and Verizon. Activists have lengthy stated shoppers have too few selections, and pay an excessive amount of cash, for web service.

Mr. Biden will even encourage the F.C.C. to reinstitute so-called web neutrality guidelines that barred web suppliers from blocking sure content material, slowing down its supply or letting shoppers pay extra to have their content material delivered sooner. The company adopted the principles in the course of the Obama administration after which rolled them again below President Donald J. Trump.

Cecilia Kang contributed reporting.